The Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome is a fatal disease, casued by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). This was isolated by Prof. Robert Gallo in U.S.A
AIDS is called Acquired Immuno Deficiency Disease because the virus attacks the T Cell of the immune system, it is called syndrome because many complicated medical problems together are possible. It is a dreadful, communicable disease.
HIV virus nestles itself in the T-Helper – Lymphocyte Cells of the host body. This cell is a major part of the immune system. The Virus will invade the body cells like blood, lymph and even secretions of reproductive organs. Being the immune system affected, the body is unable to fight disease germs. The incubation period may vary from few months to ten years and even more.
• Chronic cough and fever for more than a month
• Weight loss
• Diarrhea for than a month
• Skin infection
• Nervous breakdown
• Loss of memory
• Night sweat
HOW IS HIV TRANSMITTED?
HIV is primarily transmitted through sexual intercourse. It is also spread thorugh transfusion of unscreened blood and blood products. Used needle may carry HIV Virus. A pregnant woman having AIDS transmits the disease to her unborn child or after birth through breast feeding.
HIV is not spread through casual insects, contact like handshake, hugs, eating from the same dish, drinking from the same glass etc. it is also not spread by mosquitoes or any other insects.
MODE OF TRANSMISSION
HIV can be transmitted when blood containing HIV is given to a person during blood transfusion.
By Surgical Instruments:
By the use of the surgical instruments contaminated with HIV, the disease is transmitted. Sharing injection needles and razors of infected persons may also lead to the transmission of HIV.
AIDS is transmitted through sexual contact also (infected man to woman, infected woman to man). When a man or woman has sexual contact with a person having AIDS. 80% of those who are infected with HIV are in the age group of 20-40 years.
Maternal –Foetal Transmission:
During pregnancy the HIV Infected mother can transmit the HIV Virus to her child through placenta or during birth.
In recent days AIDS is spreading like an epidemic in some South African countries.
Diagnosis of AIDS:
Enzyme linked Immune Sorbent Assay test and Western Blot Test are common tests to ensure the presence of HIV.
CONTROL AND PREVENTIVE MEASURES:-
There is neither a cure for AIDS, nor any Vaccine available
• Sexual relation should be kept with only a single partner.
• During blood transfusion blood must be checked for HIV
• Surgical instruments must be properly sterilized
• Disposable needles should be used for injection purposes.
• Razors, toothbrushes must not be shared.
If someone does get infected by HIV Virus they should not be treated harshly as they need special sympathy and love.
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